Plasma Equilibria, dynamic and static

non-neutral plasmas (studies of unusual states of matter; fundamental physics) strongly-coupled plasmas (crystallization, ordering, fundamental physics studies) magnetic helicity and Taylor states (solar coronal loops, accelerated compact tori) micro-plasmas

Naturally-occuring Plasmas

aurorae ionospheres and magnetospheres of planets solar and stellar winds, solar atmosphere shocks, flux ropes, coronal mass ejections interstellar medium, intergalactic medium, astrophysical jets lightning, and ball lightning

Plasma Sources

laser-produced plasma beam-generated plasma ion sources plasma-generated electron sources (e.g., high-brightness electron sources for FELs) electron cyclotron (for materials processing) parallel plate discharges (for materials processing) free electron plasma radiation sources X-ray production (for lithography & materials testing) rf sources, electron cyclotron, helicon, inductive (e.g., materials processing) coherent microwave sources arcs, both DC and pulsed (e.g., steel processing, welding, toxic waste) ion engines for space propulsion MHD thrusters for space propulsion neutron production active species production for industrial plasma engineering one atmosphere gun and filamentary discharges

Plasma Sheath Phenomena

spacecraft charging rf heating sheath dynamics plasma ion implantation plasma probe interactions

Plasma-based Devices

plasma opening switches high-power switch tubes (thyratrons, ignitrons, klystrons) pulsed power systems plasma-based light sources vacuum electronics thin panel displays relativistic electron beams (high-power X-ray sources) plasma channels for flexible beam control free electron lasers (tunable electromagnetic radiation) gyrotrons (high-power mm wavelength) backward wave oscillators travelling wave tubes helicon antennas laser self-focusing plasma lenses for particle accelerators dense plasma focus or pinch plasmas for X-rays and beams compact X-ray lasers Cerenkov grating amplifier photon accelerators plasmas for incineration of hazardous materials plasma armature railguns electron cyclotron resonance reactors gas lasers arc lamps torches and film deposition chambers ignition and detonation devices meteor burst communication high-gradient accelerators for compact linear high-power light sources plasma accelerators using relativistic space-charge wave

Wave and Beam Interactions in Plasmas

externally driven waves waves as plasma sources waves as diagnostics waves as particle accelerators beam instabilities (free electron lasers; gyrotrons) parametric instabilities solitons wave-particle interactions charged particle trapping rich variety of waves for basic physics research (e.g., electron plasma, upper hybrid, lower hybrid, whistler, Alfven, drift, ion acoustic, ion cyclotron, electron cyclotron) ionospheric modification; active experiments in space plasmas light ion beam/plasma interactions (e.g., Li diagnostic beams) solar power satellite microwaves nonlinear waves turbulence, stochasticity and chaos (e.g., MHD, drift, Langmuir) striation formation and transport

Numerical Plasmas and Simulations

realistic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of discharge plasmas PIC simulations of beams in plasmas MHD and PIC simulations for space and astrophysical plasmas MHD and PIC models of earth's magnetosphere, solar wind, solar corona MHD simulations for modeling plasma thrusters understanding of nonlinear phenomena (e.g., solitons) numerical modeling of plasma sheaths modeling of superconducting plasmas fluid modeling of inductively-driven plasma sources

Plasma Theory

fundamental studies of many-body dynamics fundamental studies of kinetic theory fundamental studies of Hamiltonian systems nonlinear systems; nonequilibrium systems double layers self-organization and chaos turbulence fundamental links of micro-, meso-, to macroscale processes

Plasma Diagnostics

ion and neutral beam diagnostics spectroscopy (mass, photon) and imaging probe measurements to determine density and temperature scattering for remote sensing of density and perturbations laser-induced fluorescence to determine distribution functions laser transmission diagnostics (e.g., interferometry, polarimetry) charged-particle spectrometers to determine distribution functions magnetic field measurements electric field measurements neutral particle analysis diagnostics at one atmosphere pressure

Industrial Plasmas

plasma surface treatment plasma etching plasma thin film deposition (e.g., synthetic diamond film and high-temperature superconducting film) ion interaction with solids synthesis of materials (e.g., arc furnaces in steel fabrication) destructive plasma chemistry (e.g., toxic waste treatment) destruction of chemical warfare agents thermal plasmas isotope enrichment electrical breakdown, switchgear, and corona plasma lighting devices meat pasteurization water treatment systems electron scrubbing of flue gases in coal or solid waste burning ion beams for fine mirror polishing plasma surface cleaning electron beam-driven electrostatic fuel and paint injectors sterilization of medical instruments synthetic diamond films for thin-panel television systems plasma chemistry (produce active species to etch, coat, clean and otherwise modify materials) - low-energy electron-molecule interactions - low-pressure discharge plasmas - production of fullerenes - plasma polymerization heavy ion extraction from mixed-mass gas flows deterioration of insulating gases (e.g., high voltage switches) one-atmosphere glow discharge plasma reactor for surface treatment of fabrics (enables improved wettability, wickability, printability of polymer fabrics and wool) laser ablation plasmas; precision laser drilling plasma cutting, drilling, welding, hardening ceramic powders from plasma synthesis impulsive surface heating by ion beams metal recovery, primary extraction, scrap melting waste handling in pulp, paper, and cement industries laser ablation plasmas laser and plasma wave undulators for femtosecond pulses of X-rays and gamma rays tunable and chirpable coherent high-frequency radiation from low frequency radiation by rapid plasma creation DC to AC radiation generation by rapid plasma creation infrared to soft X-ray tunable free-electron laser (FEL) optoelectronic microwave and millimeter wave switching plasma source ion implantation (PSII) Space and Cosmic Plasmas Solar system and astrophysical plasmas plasma flows and shocks (solar wind, collisionless shocks, astrophysical jets) Birkeland currents in space
Galaxy formation Magnetic fields in galaxies Quasars The cosmic background radiation Acronyms: MHD - magnetohydrodynamics
[Based on lists prepared by Paul Bellan/CalTech and Tim Eastman/Univ. of Maryland]